BESSIE SMITH (1894-1937) began her professional career in 1912 by singing in the same show as Ma Rainey, and subsequently performed in various touring minstrel shows and cabarets. By the 1920s, she was a leading artist in black shows on the TOBA circuit and at the 81 Theatre in Atlanta. Smith was unquestionably the greatest of the vaudeville blues singers and brought the emotional intensity, personal involvement, and expression of blues singing into the jazz repertory with excelled artistry.
- Lucille Bogan: An Original MisBehaved Woman (misbehavedraven.wordpress.com)
- The 21st Century Minstrel Show (caribtorch.com)
- The song of 1912 (bbc.co.uk)
- Women of Black History: Bessie Coleman (pocampo.com)
- Seven of One, Five of the Other: Half way through August Wilson’s Century Cycle (anzinga.wordpress.com)